Water & Sanitation for Permanent Housing

Permanent housing affords the occupants an opportunity to continue developing with the ‘Building Back Better’ approach. Whilst providing a lasting solution for accommodation, there is the opportunity to include many Water and Sanitation technologies for the following:

• Reduced vulnerability in the case of possible future disasters.
• Improved living conditions compared to before disaster.
• Opportunities to improve livelihoods through increased independence and community development.

A permanent housing stage allows a much greater ‘payback’ period for the time and resources invested in a technical solution, with the opportunity to acquire considerable benefits.

Permanent solutions may be rebuilt on original sites or relocated, but in either case the technologies used can provide many additional benefits to living conditions and livelihoods of the occupants. A key factor in this approach is ensuring that the occupants and communities are fully aware of and involved in the planning and execution of any development work.

The following links exhibit a large range of technologies and concepts that can be used in the permanent housing stage:


Rainwater Harvesting during Reconstruction

Overview of RWH technologies and how they can be considered in the reconstruction process.

Water Treatment during Reconstruction

Overview of water treatment solutions suitable to a post-disaster context

Cement Mortar Jar

This case study is taken from 'Rainwater Harvesting'. This water container was originally developed in Thailand but has also been used in East Africa.

Water Supplies for Food Processing

This document examines ways of ensuring that the risk of contamination in food preparation from the water supply is minimised.

SODIS - Solar Water Disinfection in Sri Lanka

This document looks at a simple way to make water safe to drink by using plastic bottles.

Clay Water Filters

The American Red Cross and the Sri Lanka Red Cross Society have introduced appropriate clay water filter (CWF) technology to Sri Lanka.

Bio-sand Water Filters

A sand filter designed for domestic use on an intermittent basis.

Slow Sand-Filtration Water Treatment Plants

Slow sand-filtration systems are a technically viable water treatment solution.

Solar Distillation

Solar distillation is the process of removing salts and other impurities using the energy of sun to get a pure water for drinking.

Human Powered Handpumps

This brief presents an overview of the types of human-powered water lifters available, the applications appropriate to them, and their comparative advantages.

Treadle Pumps

A treadle pump is a human-powered low-cost pump designed to lift shallow water sources for irrigation.

Manual Drilling in Kassala: The Hand-Powered Percussion Drill

In order to reform damaged wells and drill new wells farmers are using percussion drills ('Sibiyah' in Arabic) powered by hand instead of more expensive powered drilling equipment.

Solar Photovoltaic Waterpumping

Understand the advantages and disadvantages of solar photovoltaic water pumping are outlined in this document including real world application.

Wind Pumping

This document examines the principles of wind energy conversion and looks at the types and characteristics of rotors

Building small-scale water harvesting dams: the experience of Practical Action (ITDG) in North Darfur State, Western Sudan

The manual reflects Practical Action experiences of water harvesting dams in western Sudan, and demonstrates the quick impact that dams can make on people's livelihoods

Human- & Animal-Powered Water Lifters for Irrigation

Recent developments in human- and animal-powered lifters have concentrated on increasing the efficiency of water lifting, combining ease of use with higher water delivery.

Rainwater Harvesting in Uganda

The basic goal of the DRIP Project is to promote a cheap and effective way of harvesting rainwater as a means of relieving food shortages.

The Sri Lankan Pumpkin Tank: A Case Study

A small scale roof water harvesting tank promoted in Sri Lanka by the World Bank.

The Underground Brick Dome Tank, Sri Lanka - A Case Study

This RWH system was developed by the CWSSP programme in Sri Lanka. The tank, a 5m cubed underground brick built tank, is based on the design of the Chinese biogas tank.


Types of Toilet for Emergencies & Reconstruction

An overview of the types of toilets and different sewerage options available in a post-disaster context

Build Your Own Tippy Tap

A simple device for washing your hands after going to the toilet.

Collapsing Latrine Pits

A short summary of the options to prevent your latrine pit from collapsing.

Ventilated Improved Pit Latrine

The Ventilated Improved Pit Latrine is an improvement on standard pit latrines that eliminates flies and odour.

Pit Emptying Systems

This technical brief describes the main systems used for emptying on-site sanitation facilities, whilst highlighting their benefits and disadvantages.

Compost Toilets

This technical brief describes a compost toilet that has proved to be most effective in water-logged areas where pit-latrines and septic tanks are inappropriate.

Reuse of Faeces and Urine

This brief follows on from Ecological Sanitation: a concept. It describes methods of managing waste faeces and urine.

no comments